Which dating sites are masons

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    Roman mortar on display at Chetham's School of Music. The first mortars were made of mud and clay. Because of a lack of stone and an abundance of clay, Babylonian constructions were of baked brick, using lime or pitch for mortar.

    According to Roman Ghirshmanthe first evidence of humans using a form of mortar was at the Mehrgarh of Baluchistan in Pakistan, built of sun-dried bricks in BCE. Gypsum mortar, also called plaster of Paris, was used in the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and many other ancient structures. It is made from gypsum, which requires a lower firing temperature. It is therefore easier to make than lime mortar and sets up much faster which may be a reason it was used as the typical mortar in ancient, brick arch and vault construction.

    Gypsum mortar is not as durable as other mortars in damp conditions. In the Indian subcontinentmultiple cement types have been observed in the sites of the Indus Valley Civilizationsuch as the Mohenjo-daro city-settlement that dates to earlier than BCE. Gypsum cement that was "light grey and contained sand, clay, traces of calcium carbonate, and a high percentage of lime" was used in the construction of wells, drains and on the exteriors of "important looking buildings.

    This aqueduct dates back to c. The Romans later improved the use and methods of making what became known as pozzolanic mortar and cement. This mortar was not as strong as pozzolanic mortar, but, because it was denser, it better resisted penetration by water.

    During the Middle Ages when the Gothic cathedrals were being built, the only active ingredient in the mortar was lime.

    Since cured lime mortar can be degraded by contact with water, many structures suffered from wind blown rain over the centuries. Laying bricks with Portland cement mortar Ordinary Portland cement mortar[ edit ] Ordinary Portland cement mortar, commonly known as OPC mortar or just cement mortar, is created by mixing powdered Ordinary Portland Cementfine aggregate and water. It was invented in by Joseph Aspdin and patented on 18 Decemberlargely as a result of efforts to develop stronger mortars.

    It was made popular during the late nineteenth century, and had by became more popular than lime mortar as construction material. The advantages of Portland cement is that it sets hard and quickly, allowing a faster pace of construction.

    Furthermore, fewer skilled workers are required in building a structure with Portland cement.

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    As a general rule, however, Portland cement should not be used for the repair or repointing of older buildings built in lime mortar, which require the flexibility, softness and breathability of lime if they are to function correctly. When it's the right consistency as in the photo trowel stands up it's ready to apply. In the United States and other countries, five standard types of mortar available as dry pre-mixed products are generally used for both new construction and repair.

    Strengths of mortar change based on the ratio of cement, lime, and sand used in mortar. The ingredients and the mix ratio for each type of mortars are specified under the ASTM standards. Type M mortar is the strongest, and Type K the weakest. The polymeric admixtures include latexes or emulsionsredispersible polymer powders, water-soluble polymers, liquid thermoset resins and monomers.

    It has low permeability, and it reduces the incidence of drying shrinkage cracking, mainly designed for repairing concrete structures. Lime mortar The setting speed can be increased by using impure limestone in the kilnto form a hydraulic lime that will set on contact with water.

    Such a lime must be stored as a dry powder. Alternatively, a pozzolanic material such as calcined clay or brick dust may be added to the mortar mix. Addition of a pozzolanic material will make the mortar set reasonably quickly by reaction with the water. It would be problematic to use Portland cement mortars to repair older buildings originally constructed using lime mortar. Lime mortar is softer than cement mortar, allowing brickwork a certain degree of flexibility to adapt to shifting ground or other changing conditions.

    Cement mortar is harder and allows little flexibility. The contrast can cause brickwork to crack where the two mortars are present in a single wall.

    Lime mortar is considered breathable in that it will allow moisture to freely move through and evaporate from the surface. In old buildings with walls that shift over time, cracks can be found which allow rain water into the structure. The lime mortar allows this moisture to escape through evaporation and keeps the wall dry.

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    Pozzolana Pozzolana is a fine, sandy volcanic ash. It was originally discovered and dug at Pozzuolinearby Mount Vesuvius in Italy, and was subsequently mined at other sites, too. The Romans learned that pozzolana added to lime mortar allowed the lime to set relatively quickly and even under water.

    Vitruviusthe Roman architect, spoke of four types of pozzolana. It is found in all the volcanic areas of Italy in various colours: Firestop mortar[ edit ] Firestop mortars are mortars most typically used to firestop large openings in walls and floors required to have a fire-resistance rating.

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    They are passive fire protection items. Firestop mortars differ in formula and properties from most other cementitious substances[ citation needed ] and cannot be substituted with generic mortars without violating the listing and approval use and compliance. Firestop mortar is usually a combination of powder mixed with water, forming a cementatious stone which dries hard.

    It is sometimes mixed with lightweight aggregates, such as perlite or vermiculite [ citation needed ]. It is sometimes pigmented to distinguish it from generic materials[ citation needed ] in an effort to prevent unlawful substitution and to enable verification of the certification listing.

    This caption requires cleanup.
    While thousands of tourists flock to the castle every year to admire the unique architecture of the Quinta de Regaleira that combines Gothic, Egyptian, Moorish and Renaissance features, one of its most fascinating features is located beneath the ground — a pair of wells spiraling deep within the earth. The wells were never used, nor intended for water collection. Instead, these mysterious underground towers were used for secretive initiation rites.

    The Quinta de Regaleira. There are archaeological sites in the area dating back to the early Neolithic 5 th millennium BC and extending all the way through to the Iron Age 4 th — 2 nd centuries BC. The Roman occupation of the region began in the mid-2 nd century BC and it was later conquered by the Moors.

    Sintra finally yielded to Afonso Henriques, the first king of Portugal after the conquest of Lisbon in Afonso built an imposing royal Palace there which served as a summer residence until the late 16 th century. After the suppression of the Templars inthe lands passed to the Order of Christ.

    In the late 15 th century, Sintra was associated with Leonor, one of the greatest Queens of Portugal. Succeeding monarchs spent much time in the town, but after the Restoration ofSintra lost this link and the Royal palace served only as a prison for Afonso VI. Sadly, most of the built heritage of the region was destroyed in an earthquake inthough there are some outstanding court and military buildings, examples of religious architecture and archaeological sites.


    The Quinta da Regaleira is a vast estate that sits within this historical landscape. It has had many owners throughout the years, each contributing their own personal touch. Gargoyles perch on the rooftop of the Quinta de Regaleira. The estate grounds feature lakes, grottoes, wells, benches, fountains, and an extensive and enigmatic system of tunnels that connect to two spiraling wells. A system of tunnels and caves connect to two deep and spiraling wells.

    It is believed that the spacing of the landings, as well as the number of steps in between were dictated by Masonic principles. The Initiation Well consists of a spiraling staircase with nine platforms. Very little is known about how the wells were used and what exactly went on there, though it is clear to see that great effort went into their planning and construction.

    The bottom of the Initiation well at Quinta da Regaleira. The initiation wells leave one to wonder about the events that once transpired there. Quinta da Regaleira initiation well.

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    Sintra Well, Portugal — National Geographic.
    Search Opening a new window Printout For best results save the whole page pictures included onto your hard disk, open the page with Word 97 or higher, edit if necessary and print. Built of sun baked bricks made of Nile mud and straw, houses, palaces and city walls crumbled when they stopped being looked after.

    Stone structures like temples and tombs fared better, but even they fell victim to the ravages of time, the greed of men, to earthquakes and subsidence. One shouldn't be surprised by what has disappeared but by how much is left.

    Planning The planning of Egyptian architects and stone-masons was meticulous. It included ground-plans, sections and contours drawn on surfaces covered with grid lines.


    Petrie who investigated the Great Pyramids wrote From several indications it seems that the masons planned the casing, and some at least of the core masonry also, course by course on the ground. For on all the casing, and on the core on which the casing fitted, there are lines drawn on the horizontal surfaces, showing where each stone was to be placed on those below it.

    If the stones were merely trimmed to fit each other as the building went on, there would be no need to have so carefully marked the place of each block in this particular way; and it shows that they were probably planned and fitted together on the ground below.

    Another indication of very careful and elaborate planning on the ground is in the topmost space over the King's Chamber; there the roofing-beams were numbered, and marked for the north or south sides; and though it might be thought that it could be of no consequence in what order they were placed, yet all their details were evidently schemed before they were delivered to the builders' hands.

    This care in arranging all the work agrees strikingly with the great employment of unskilled labourers during two or three months at a time, as they would then raise all the stones which the masons had worked and stored ready for use since the preceding season.

    These pillar capitals, destined for a temple at Denderah being built by Cleopatra, were sketched with red ochre on the rock face in half the natural size.

    The ground-plan of the tomb of Ramses IV is extant. It was drawn on papyrus at a When a Ptolemaic temple at Qalabasha in Nubia was moved block by block from to and rebuilt elsewhere, the ground-plan of the building was discovered.

    The architect had again used grid lines and the laying of the blocks was accurate to 7 mm according to K. Siegler who checked it out. The foundations were laid down straight with the help of strings, then they scratched the ground-plan into the surface of these foundations according to the grid lines.

    A list of the required blocks with their measurements were sent to the quarry where they were trimmed with great precision. The administrators had to plan too. While they interfered little in the way residential districts of towns grew, they were responsible for the erection of public buildings, among them temples built of stone.

    Expeditions to the quarries were complicated enterprises. I begged the majesty of my lord to have brought to me a sarcophagus of white stone from Tura His majesty caused the seal-bearer of the god to cross over together with a company of sailors under his command in order to bring to me this sarcophagus from Tura it arrived with him in a great barge of the court together with its lid, a false door lintel, two doorjambs and a libation stone.

    On no occasion had the like been done for any servant before. The rocks had to be loaded onto barges and shipped downriver.

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    This generally had to happen during inundation, as moving heavy loads on boats was much easier than dragging them on sledges and one could go farther by boat when the Nile was covering large tracts of land. I travelled north with them to the pyramid "Mernere-appears-splendor" in 6 barges,3 tow-boats of 8 ribs in a single expedition on no occasion had Ibhat and Yebu been done in a single expedition under the time of any king.

    Everything that his majesty commanded, happened, entirely as his majesty commanded. His majesty sent me to Hatnub in order to bring a great altar of Hatnub alabaster. I brought down this altar for him in 17 days after it was hewn at Hatnub. I caused it to travel downstream in this barge. I had built for it a barge of acacia wood of 60 cubits in its length, 30 cubits in its width assembled in 17 days in the 3rd month of summer, when there was no water upon the sandbanks. His majesty sent me in order to dig 5 canals in Upper Egypt and in order to build 3 barges and 4 tow-boats of acacia wood of Wawat the rulers of the Medja hills Irtjet, Wawat, Yam, Medja were cutting the wood for them.

    I did it entirely in one year, floated and loaded with very large granite blocks for the pyramid 'Mernere-appears-in-splendor'. Indeed, I made a saving for the Palace with all these 5 canals. From the autobiography of Weni the Elder Translated by Mark Vigus The construction itself took place during the dry season in some places as flooding occasionally occurred.

    All these constraints had to be taken into account. Ceremonies Building has always been a major undertaking for man and the beginning of construction has often been an occasion for asking the gods for their good-will, and the end for thanking them. Senmut, Hatshepsut's architect and child minder, is holding a measuring cord Source: Jon Bodsworth My majesty ordered that the foundation ceremony lit. In the year 24, second month of the second season, the last day of the monthon the day of the tenth feast of Amon in After this, I proceeded [after] my father, Amon; the god proceeded at his going to celebrate this his beautiful feast.

    The majesty of this god marveled He set his majesty before him at this monument Then I went to do the extending of the measuring-line upon which Behold, the majesty of this revered god desired to do the extending of the line himself I have grasped the stake along with the handle of the mallet, I take the measuring cord in the company of Seshat. I consider the progressive movement of the stars.

    My eye is fixed upon the Bull's Thigh constellation. I count off time, scrutinize the clock, and establish the corners of thy temple. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies: This was often a collection of bones, tools broken on purpose, amulets, pottery and the like. Petrie described the deposit he found at Kahun: Foundation deposit from Deir el Bahri Source: In the middle of the temple area a hole 31 inches square was excavated in the rock about four feet deep, to contain the foundation deposits.

    Into this the four sets of objects were thrown, without any arrangement or order. Each set of models consisted of a small chisel, long chisel, wide chisel, long knifelarge pointed knife, small pointed knife, and hatchet, all of bronze ; a pair of corn rubbers of brown sandstone; and two strings of carnelian beads, averaging about a foot in length.

    Two or three pieces of green carbonate of copper ore, and a piece of galena were also thrown in. Over these a quantity of pottery vessels was placed And some baskets, and straw or fibre, accompanied the deposit. Brick wall in a tomb, laid in cross or English bond Valley of the Kings Building materials Mud The absence of rain, the scarcity of wood and an abundance of sunshine made adobe the preferred building material.

    Loamy Nile mud mixed with straw resulted in surprisingly strong bricks. As long as groundwater did not dissolve their foundations and floods did not reach them, well tended mud brick walls could stand for generations.

    In every location during a building project brick moulds of equal size were used, which were between about 45 to 30 cm in length and 20 to 15 cm in width.

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    The brick size was thus standardized, e. At Karnak the bricks measured 40 by 20 by 15, at the Late Period Naukratis they were about the same size. These dimensions suggest they were generally laid in cross bond English bond. But other bonding patterns such as running bond, Flemish bond, and stack bond were apparently also used at times.

    One may assume that ancient workers were about as efficient. But one of the earliest tombs to be opened at Nebesheh was built of red baked bricks, dated to Egypt's Nineteenth Dynasty: The workers building distant necropoles or quarrying rock might be housed like this see Deir el Medine. Otherwise even pharaohs lived in brick palaces and rock was reserved for the dead and the gods. Most stone used was limestone which is relatively soft when freshly quarried and can easily be shaped, a very important consideration when chisels were made of copper or bronze and the hardest tools available were diorite hammerstones.

    During the New Kingdom the first iron came into use, but iron implements became widespread only centuries later. Granite, one of the hardest rocks, was used on occasion, at times on a large scale.

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    The great pyramids were originally covered with it and obelisks, weighing hundreds of tons, carved from it. This was not as disastrous in the dry climate of Egypt as it would have been under wetter conditions. The mortar used for mudbricks was basically the same material as that from which the bricks themselves were made, but generally no organic matter was added.

    It was mixed shortly before being used and was only applied between the horizontal layers, and not to stick the bricks together along their vertical joints.

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    Doors and shutters were made of it and upper storey floors. The longest beams that could be cut from local wood were only three to four metres long. If the ceiling was wider than that, it had to be supported with wooden pillars.

    The only native trees easily available and with stems straight and long enough to be used for this purpose were palm trees, whose wood is not very strong. On top of wooden beams planks were laid and covered with a thin layer of earth. See 'The townhouse of Djehutinefer ', a multi-storeyed building where pillars supported upper-storey floors and each other.

    When a building was abandoned, all wooden and stone parts such as doors, lintels etc. Abd el Qurna, New Kingdom Source of the drawing: V The foremen used measuring rods, strings, plumb-lines and set-squares. The water-level was unknown, though its principle was understood see Foundations. Workmen had buckets and baskets to carry the mud, hoes for mixing it with straw or chaff and standard sized wooden moulds. Wheelbarrows were unknown and the dried bricks had to be carried, for which a yoke was often used.

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    Builders smoothed walls with floats of various sizes. There were big floats for the rough first coat of plaster. They had a bevelled end for working in corners. Masons had their own set of tools made of stone, wood and metal. The builders There was little glory in the work of a bricklayer. Scribes generally had few good words to say about it. It was backbreaking drudgery:

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