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    The second oldest was the Tabon Man of Palawan, whose skeletons were carbon-dated to over 24, years ago. The first European inhabitants arrived on the islands inthrough the expedition of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who claimed the land for Spain.

    Colonization, however, only occurred inthrough the efforts of Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who arrived from Mexico and established a settlement on the island of Cebu. The Philippines was pretty much an Islamic region when the Spanish arrived, who were the ones responsible for naming the archipelago, in honor of King Philip II of Spain.

    From untilthe Philippines was a territory of Spain. During the span of over years, the country was opened to international trade. First was the trade route to Acapulco, which brought fruits and crops from the Americas to the Philippines.

    By the 19th century, the country was open to world trade, bringing with it shifts in society, creating incredibly rich Spaniards and mestizos and further divided the social classes.

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    During the Spanish reign, schools and universities were built, as well as hospitals and many infrastructure. Roman Catholicism was also spread throughout the country, converting majority of the Philippines to Christianity. On the same year on June 12, the Philippines had also declared independence from Spain, which the US did not recognize, leading to the Philippine-American war.

    Bythe US had granted Commonwealth status to the country but plans on developing the nation were halted by the Japanese invasion during World War II. However, the Philippine government regards June 12, as its official independence date. Geography The Philippines is an archipelago located on the farthest Western part of the Pacific, and also the farthest eastern country in Asia. It is an archipelago made of 7, islands, with 3 main islands called Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.

    The islands are located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, which means it is susceptible to earthquakes and its proximity to the equator exposes the country to a number of tornadoes each year.

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    But despite these plausible natural calamities, the country is also endowed with abundant natural resources. The highest peak is Mt. Apo, found on the island of Mindanao, which is at 9, feet above sea level while the deepest point is the Philippine Trench, which is the 3rd deepest point in the world.

    Politics The country is made of 17 regions, 81 provinces, cities, 1, municipalities, and 42, barangays or small communities. The head of the state is the president, elected by popular vote through national elections. The government is democratic, and governed through a constitution. The president, who stays in office for 6 years on a single term, appoints his own cabinet and also holds the position of commander-in-chief of the army.

    The Senate is the upper house of the government while the lower house is the House of Representatives.

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    The judicial system is governed by the Supreme Court, with the Chief Justice its presiding officer. Travel Thousands of tropical islands make the Philippines a tropical paradise. Aside from its spectacular beaches and natural wonders, the country is also filled with historical monuments and buildings. The most popular island in the country is Boracay - a small island of white sand beaches and crystal blue waters. Its bustling nightlife is legendary, making it the perfect party paradise for locals and tourists.

    The Chocolate Hills on the island of Bohol consists of over 1, small hills that look like chocolates during dry season. Its origin has never been explained and remains as one of the country's most visited places. The San Agustin Church in Manila is the oldest stone church in the country and boasts of the best example of Mexican-influenced interiors in the Philippines.

    And lastly, the Banaue Rice Terraces is a prehistoric engineering marvel that is a must-see. Carved mountain ranges are used for rice planting, which was created over years ago. The site is still being used for planting rice until today. Education There are over public schools in the country, with over private institutions. Elementary education is compulsory and free public elementary and high school are provided.

    The nation's university is the University of the Philippines, which is the nation's top ranking school. The oldest is the University of Sto. Tomas, which is also the oldest university charter in Asia, having been built in Trivia The people of the Philippines make up the largest diaspora in the world, with over 12 million Filipinos spread all around the cities of the world.

    The country is the text capital of the world, with an average of million text messages sent every day. It is also the only Christian country in Asia.
    International Religious Freedom Report Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in practice.

    There was no change in the status of respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report, and government policy continued to contribute to the generally free practice of religion. Adherents of all faiths are free to exercise their religious beliefs in all parts of the country without government interference or restriction.

    However, socioeconomic disparity between the Christian majority and the Muslim minority has contributed to persistent conflict in certain provinces. The Government and the MILF currently maintain a yearlong cease-fire with both sides planning to continue their peace dialogue brokered by neighboring Malaysia.

    An eventual peace settlement will likely include special recognition of Islamic madrassa education and Shari'a law, among other pro-Muslim provisions. The generally amicable relationship among religions in society contributed to religious freedom; however, there is some ethnic, religious, and cultural discrimination against Muslims by Christians.

    This has led some Muslims to seek a degree of political autonomy for Muslims in the southwestern part of the country. Embassy discusses religious freedom issues with the Government as part of its overall policy to promote human rights. The Embassy is actively engaged in the peace process between the Government and MILF and plans to monitor future peace talks.

    Religious Demography The country has a total area of approximatelysquare miles, and its population is approximately 84 million. Over 81 percent of citizens claim membership in the Roman Catholic Church, according to the official census data on religious preference. Other Christian denominations together comprise approximately 8. Muslims total 5 percent of the population and Buddhists 0.

    Indigenous and other religious traditions comprise 1. Atheists and persons who did not designate a religious preference account for 0. Some Muslim scholars argue that census takers in significantly undercounted the number of Muslims because of security concerns in Muslim-majority areas of western Mindanao, preventing them from an accurate count. The census placed the number of Muslims at 3.

    Muslims reside principally in Mindanao and nearby islands and are the largest single minority religious group. In addition there are three churches established by local religious leaders: A majority of the country's indigenous peoples, estimated between 12 and 16 million, reportedly are Christian.

    However, many indigenous groups mix elements of their native religions with Christian beliefs and practices. Most Muslims belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. Members of the Muslim community are concentrated in five provinces of western Mindanao, the only provinces in which they represent the majority: Sizable Muslim neighborhoods also can be found in metropolitan Manila on the northern island of Luzon and on the western island of Palawan.

    There is no available data on "nominal" members of religious organizations. Estimates of nominal members of the largest group, Roman Catholics, range from 60 to 65 percent of the total population. These estimates are based on regular church attendance.

    El Shaddai, a local charismatic lay movement affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, has grown rapidly in the last decade and has a reported 8 million members worldwide. El Shaddai's headquarters in Manila claims a domestic membership of 6 million, or 7. Christian missionaries work actively throughout the country, including most parts of western Mindanao, often within Muslim communities.

    The Government at all levels strives to protect this right in full and does not tolerate its abuse, either by governmental or private actors. Although Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism, is the dominant religion, there is no state religion, and the Constitution provides for the separation of church and state.

    The Government does not restrict adherents of other religions from practicing their faith. For SEC registration, religious groups must submit their articles of faith and existing bylaws.

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    The law does not specify penalties for failure to register with the SEC. To be registered as a nonstock, nonprofit organization, they must meet the basic requirements for corporate registration and must request tax exemption from the BIR law division. Older religious corporations are required to submit a 5-year financial statement, while new groups are given a 3-year provisional tax exemption.

    Established nonstock, nonprofit organizations may be fined for late filing of registration with the BIR and nonsubmission of registration datasheets and financial statements. There were no reports of discrimination in the registration system during the period covered by this report. The Government provides no direct subsidies to institutions for religious purposes, including the extensive school systems maintained by religious orders and church groups. The Office on Muslim Affairs OMAan agency under the Office of the President, generally limits its activities to fostering Islamic religious practices, although it also has the authority to coordinate economic growth and livelihood projects in predominantly Muslim areas.

    The OMA's Bureau of Pilgrimage and Endowment administers the annual Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, supervises endowment Awqaf properties and institutions, and conducts activities for the establishment and maintenance of Islamic centers and Awqaf projects. The bureau helps coordinate the travel of religious pilgrims by coordinating bus service to and from airports, hotel reservations, and guides.

    The Presidential Assistant for Muslim Affairs helps coordinate relations with countries that have large Islamic populations and that have contributed to Mindanao's economic development and to the peace process. In February approximately 3, of the country's Muslims participated in the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. The ARMM, established inresponded to Muslim demands for local autonomy in areas where Muslims represent a majority or a substantial minority.

    Inthe Government signed a final peace agreement with the MNLF, concluding an often violent struggle that lasted more than 20 years. The Government is working with MNLF leaders on a variety of development programs to reintegrate former MNLF fighters through providing them with jobs and business opportunities.

    The integration of ex-MNLF fighters into the armed forces and police has helped reduce suspicion between Christians and Muslims. By the end of the period covered by this report, this program had not officially commenced since it was in a 3-month succession phase. Discussions are ongoing in preparation for the next phase of the project.

    Under this declaration, police and military personnel are not allowed to carry firearms within the municipality. Apart from Jolo, other towns in North Cotabato, Maguindanao, and Zamboanga del Norte provinces have been declared peace zones in the past. The peace zones in North Cotabato and Maguindanao have been somewhat successful due to community involvement and a mutual cessation of hostilities between the military and the rebels.

    The Government permits religious instruction in public schools with the written consent of parents, provided there is no cost to the Government. Based on a traditional policy of promoting moral education, local public schools make available to church groups the opportunity to teach moral values during school hours.

    Attendance is not mandatory, and various churches rotate in sharing classroom space. The Government also allows interested groups to distribute free Bibles in public schools. According to the law, public schools must ensure that the religious rights of students are protected. Muslim students are allowed to wear their head coverings hijaband Muslim girls are not required to wear shorts during physical education classes.

    Inthe Philippine Military Academy PMA announced plans to erect a mosque on campus to provide Muslim cadets a place to worship and to enhance cultural awareness of Islam for all cadets; however, this project had not yet been completed by the end of the period covered by this report. In many parts of Mindanao, Muslim students routinely attend Catholic schools from elementary to university level; however, these students are not required to receive Catholic religious instruction.

    Approximately 14 percent of the school population in Mindanao attends Islamic schools. Estimates of the number of madrassas Islamic schools across the country vary widely; government officials estimate the number at over 2, Of these, more than half are located in the ARMM. To date 1, madrassas seeking financial assistance from local and foreign donors are registered with the Office on Muslim Affairs, while only 35 are registered with the Department of Education DepEd.

    Most madrassas do not meet the DepEd's accreditation standards for curricula and adequate facilities. During the school year, the Government announced a program to integrate madrassas into the country's national education system. The five-point program includes information and communications technology, madrassa education, peace education, Mindanao culture and history, and teacher training. It initially involved madrassas in the ARMM, with the intention of eventually expanding to all Mindanao provinces.

    To propagate the moderate teachings of Islam as opposed to the extremist positions of radical Muslim groups, a 2-day International Ulama Islamic religious leader Forum was held in Manila in May. The conference aimed to create a Center for Moderate Muslims to showcase Islam as a religion of peace, harmony, tolerance, and understanding.

    Activities of the Center would include discussions on the fundamentals of Islamic faith, producing educational materials, and public awareness campaigns. Approximately 10 top-ranking ulama officials in Mindanao, 50 ulama leaders from Luzon, 10 Muslim women religious leaders, and 30 foreign ulamas from Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Cambodia, and Japan participated in the forum. Restrictions on Religious Freedom Government policy and practice contributed to the generally free practice of religion.

    The Government does not ban or discourage specific religions or religious factions. Muslims, who are concentrated in many of the most impoverished provinces in the country, complain that the Government has not made sufficient efforts to promote economic development.

    Some Muslim religious leaders assert further that Muslims suffer from economic discrimination by the Government, which is reflected in the Government's failure to provide funding to stimulate Mindanao's economic development.

    Despite such programs, intermittent government efforts to integrate Muslims better into the political and economic mainstream have achieved limited success. Many Muslims claim that they continue to be underrepresented in senior civilian and military positions, and cite the lack of proportional Muslim representation in national government institutions.

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    After the May 10 national elections, Muslims held 10 seats in the member House of Representatives. The Code of Muslim Personal Laws recognizes the Shari'a Islamic law civil law system as part of national law; however, it does not apply in criminal matters, and it applies only to Muslims.

    Some Muslim community leaders ulamas argue that the Government should allow Islamic courts to extend their jurisdiction to criminal law cases, and some support the MILF's goal of forming an autonomous region governed in accordance with Islamic law.

    As of May 31, there were 32 incumbent judges and 19 vacancies in the Shari'a Circuit Court, and no incumbent judges and 5 vacancies for the Shari'a District Court. As in other parts of the judicial system, the Shari'a courts suffer from a large number of unfilled positions. In March, Muslim leaders within the Government and the private sector objected to the proposal of the Philippine National Police PNP to adopt an identification system exclusively for Filipino Muslims, which they regarded as discriminatory.

    PNP responded that a Muslim group voluntarily proposed the adoption of an identification system for all Muslim residents in Metro Manila as a means to identify suspected terrorists and criminals who are seeking refuge in Muslim communities.

    A Muslim community leader noted that there is no similar scheme for Christians. The plan had not been implemented as of the end of the period covered by this report. The ASG is primarily a loose collection of criminal-terrorist and kidnap-for-ransom gangs, and mainstream Muslim leaders reject its religious affiliation and strongly criticize its actions as "un-Islamic.

    According to the military, the ASG has to members, which is lower than in previous years. In June, security forces found and defused a bomb outside a Catholic church in Manila. Authorities arrested three suspects and believe the crime was driven by opposition to the presidential inauguration, not by religious or discriminatory motives.

    Two similar bombs were found a day earlier at political and military locations. In April, following a series of illegal raids of Muslim communities and arrests reportedly without warrants, some 4, Muslims held a prayer vigil and protest march in Metro Manila and accused the Government of targeting Muslim communities in its hunt for terrorists.

    The Ulama League of the Philippines, an organization of Muslim religious groups, denounced the military's report tagging an Arabic teacher and two city hall workers as suspected ASG members and called for the establishment of sufficient evidence before linking Muslims with terror groups. In a meeting with Manila Muslim leaders, President Arroyo clarified that the campaign against terrorism was carried out without ethnic or religious bias.

    In April, in line with the Government's antiterrorism campaign, the President ordered the creation of a special Muslim police unit tasked to handle cases involving the arrest and investigation of Muslims.
    Pleistocene[ edit ] A study by France's Museum of Natural History, with Thomas Ingicco as the lead author, pushes back the arrival of the first Homo species on the Philippines betweenandyears ago in a period known today as Pleistocene.

    This was on the wake of the analysis conducted using several dating techniques to the rhino remains unearthed in a Kalinga site. It showed ridges left by tools made while removing flesh, and special tools designed to remove bone marrow. The site yielded more than bones, including several dozen knapped and chipped tools, of which 49 are knife-like flakes with two hammers.

    On the other hand, it is possible that it had already evolved into a distinct species. Landa Jocano refers to the earliest noticeable stage in the development of proto-Philippine societies as the Formative Phase. No evidence has survived which would indicate details of ancient Filipino life such as their crops, culture, and architecture.

    Historian William Henry Scott noted any theory which describes such details for the period must be pure hypothesis, and thus be honestly presented as such. Callao Man The earliest known human remains in the Philippines are the fossilised remains discovered in in the Callao Caves in Cagayan. The 67,year-old find predates the 47,year-old Tabon Manwhich was until then the earliest known set of human remains in the archipelago. The find consisted of a single 61 millimeter metatarsal which, when dated using uranium series ablationwas found to be its current age.

    If definitively proven to be remains of Homo sapiensit would also be one of the oldest human remains in the Asia-Pacific. Tabon Man Fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone of three individuals had been discovered on May 28, by Dr. Foxan American anthropologist of the National Museum. Tabon Cave appears to be a kind of a Stone Age factory, with both finished stone flake tools and waste core flakes having been found at four separate levels in the main chamber.

    Charcoal left from three assemblages of cooking fires there has been Carbon dated to roughly 7, 20, and 22, BC. It is indicated that about half of the 3, specimens recovered from the cave are discarded cores of a material which had to be transported from some distance.

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    The Tabon man fossils are considered to have come from the third group of inhabitants who inhabited the cave between 22, and 20, BC. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent Upper Pleistocene dates from 45 or 50 thousand years ago. This indicates that Tabon Man was Pre-Mongoloid Mongoloid being the term anthropologists apply to the racial stock which entered Southeast Asia during the Holocene and absorbed earlier peoples to produce the modern Malay, Indonesian, Filipino, and "Pacific" peoples.

    Two experts have given the opinion that the mandible is "Australian" in physical type, and that the skullcap measurements are most nearly like the Ainus or Tasmanians.

    Nothing can be concluded about Tabon man's physical appearance from the recovered skull fragments except that he was not a Negrito. A spectacular example of a secondary burial jar is owned by the National Museum, a National Treasure, with a jar lid topped with two figures, one the deceased, arms crossed, hands touching the shoulders, the other a steersman, both seated in a proawith only the mast missing from the piece.

    Secondary burial was practiced across all the islands of the Philippines during this period, with the bones reburied, some in the burial jars. Seventy-eight earthenware vessels were recovered from the Manunggul cave, Palawanspecifically for burial. Models of migration to the Philippines There have been many models of early human migration to the Philippines.

    Otley Beyer first proposed his wave migration theory, numerous scholars have approached the question of how, when and why humans first came to the Philippines. The question of whether the first humans arrived from the south Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei as suggested by Beyer or from the north via Taiwan as suggested by the Austronesian theory has been a subject of heated debate for decades.

    As new discoveries come to light, past hypotheses are reevaluated and new theories constructed. Beyer's wave migration theory Theory of Waves of Migration [ edit ] The first, and most widely known theory of the prehistoric peopling of the Philippines is that of H.

    Beyer, the ancestors of the Filipinos came to the islands first via land bridges which would occur during times when the sea level was low, and then later in seagoing vessels such as the balangay. Thus he differentiated these ancestors as arriving in different "waves of migration", as follows: The aboriginal pygmy group, the Negritoswho arrived between 25, and 30, years ago. The seafaring tool-using Indonesian group who arrived about 5, to 6, years ago and were the first immigrants to reach the Philippines by sea.

    The seafaring, more civilized Malays who brought the Iron age culture and were the real colonizers and dominant cultural group in the pre-Hispanic Philippines. Beyer's theory, while still popular among lay Filipinos, has been generally been disputed by anthropologists and historians. Reasons for doubting it are founded on Beyer's use of 19th century scientific methods of progressive evolution and migratory diffusion as the basis for his hypothesis.

    These methods have since been proven to be too simple and unreliable to explain the prehistoric peopling of the Philippines. He maintained that the Philippines was never part of mainland Asia. He claimed that it arose from the bottom of the sea and, as the thin Pacific crust moved below it, continued to rise. It continues to rise today. The country lies along great Earth faults that extend to deep submarine trenches. The resulting violent earthquakes caused what is now the land masses forming the Philippines to rise to the surface of the sea.

    Voss also pointed out that when scientific studies were done on the Earth's crust from toit was discovered that the kilometer- thick crust underneath China does not reach the Philippines. Thus, the latter could not have been a land bridge to the Asian mainland. This is being disputed by anthropologists, as well as Professor H. Otley Beyer, who claims that the first inhabitants of the Philippines came from the Malay Peninsula. The Malays now constitute the largest portion of the populace and what Filipinos now have is an Austronesian culture.

    Philippine historian William Henry Scott has pointed out that Palawan and the Calamianes Islands are separated from Borneo by water nowhere deeper than meters, that south of a line drawn between Saigon and Brunei does the depth of the South China Sea nowhere exceeds meters, and that the Strait of Malacca reaches 50 meters only at one point.

    According to Scott, it is clear that Palawan and the Calamianes do not stand on a submerged land bridge, but were once a hornlike protuberance on the shoulder of a continent whose southern shoreline used to be the present islands of Java and Borneo. Mindoro and the Calamianes are separated by a channel more than meters deep [19] Bellwood's Austronesian diffusion theory Austronesian Model [ edit ] The principal branches of the Malayo-Polynesian Language Family. Some areas with oceanic languages are not visible on this map.

    These people either already had or began to develop a unique language of their own, now referred to as Proto-Austronesian. By around BC, these groups started differentiating into three or four distinct subcultures, and by to BC, one of these groups began migrating southwards towards the Philippines and Indonesiareaching as far as Borneo and the Moluccas by BC, forming new cultural groupings and developing unique languages.

    By BC, some of these groups started migrating west, reaching as far as Madagascar around the 1st millennium. Others migrated east, settling as far as Easter Island by the midth century, giving the Austronesian language group the distinction of being one of the most widely distributed language groups in the world at that time, in terms of the geographical span of the homelands of its languages. According to this theory, the peoples of the Philippines are the descendants of those cultures who remained on the Philippine islands when others moved first southwards, then eastward and westward.

    Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network NMTCN or island origin theory[ edit ] Wilhelm Solheim 's concept of the Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network NMTCNwhile not strictly a theory regarding the biological ancestors of modern Southeast Asians, does suggest that the patterns of cultural diffusion throughout the Asia-Pacific region are not what would be expected if such cultures were to be explained by simple migration.

    Where Bellwood based his analysis primarily on linguistic analysis, Solheim's approach was based on artifact findings. On the basis of a careful analysis of artifacts, he suggests the existence of a trade and communication network that first spread in the Asia-Pacific region during its Neolithic age c.

    According to Solheim's NMTCN theory, this trade network, consisting of both Austronesian and non-Austronesian seafaring peoples, was responsible for the spread of cultural patterns throughout the Asia-Pacific region, not the simple migration proposed by the Out-of-Taiwan hypothesis. Solheim Solheim came up with four geographical divisions delineating the spread of the NMTCN over time, calling these geographical divisions "lobes.

    The central lobe was further divided into two smaller lobes reflecting phases of cultural spread: He then suggests the spread of peoples around BC towards the "Late central lobe", including the Philippines, via island Southeast Asia, rather than from the north as the Taiwan theory suggests.

    These languages would become part of the culture spread by the NMTCN in its expansions Malaysia and western towards Malaysia before BC, continuing along coastal India and Sri Lanka up to the western coast of Africa and Madagascar; and over time, further eastward towards its easternmost borders at Easter Island.

    Thus, as in the case of Bellwood's theory, the Austronesian languages spread eastward and westward from the area around the Philippines. Aside from the matter of the origination of peoples, the difference between the two theories is that Bellwood's theory suggests a linear expansion, while Solheim's suggests something more akin to concentric circles, all overlapping in the geographical area of the late central lobe which includes the Philippines.

    Jocano's local origins theory Core Population [ edit ] Another alternative model is that asserted by anthropologist F. Landa Jocano of the University of the Philippineswho in contended that the existing fossil evidence of ancient humans demonstrates that they not only migrated to the Philippines, but also to New GuineaBorneoand Australia.

    In reference to Beyer's wave model, he points out that there is no definitive way to determine the "race" of the human fossils; the only certain thing is that the discovery of Tabon Man proves that the Philippines was inhabited as early as 21, or 22, years ago.

    If this is true, the first inhabitants of the Philippines would not have come from the Malay Peninsula. Instead, Jocano postulates that the present Filipinos are products of the long process of evolution and movement of people. He also adds that this is also true of Indonesians and Malaysians, with none among the three peoples being the dominant carrier of culture. In fact, he suggests that the ancient humans who populated Southeast Asia cannot be categorized under any of these three groups.

    He thus further suggests that it is not correct to consider Filipino culture as being Malayan in orientation. This particular haplogroup is also predominant among Chinese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. The rates of Haplogroup O1a are highest among the Taiwanese aborigines, and Chamic -speaking people. Genetic data found among a sampling of Filipinos may indicate some relation to the Ami tribe of Taiwan.

    Population dispersals occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which resulted in migrations from the Philippine Islands into Taiwan within the last 10, years. The predominant genotype detected was SC, the Southeast Asian genotype. Conclusions[ edit ] These indigenous elements in the Filipino's genetic makeup serve as clues to the patterns of migration throughout Philippine prehistory.

    After the 16th century, of course, the colonial period saw the influx of genetic influence from Europeans. During the above-mentioned study conducted by Stanford University Asia-Pacific Research Centerit was stated that 3. Compared to the 28 individuals used by Stanford which they sampled from the rural areas of isolated Palawan island, the Y-DNA bank had analyzed Filipino individuals from all across the country.

    Proto-Austronesians[ edit ] the world in BCE shows the societies in the Philippine islands and its neighbors at the time. Before the expansion out of Taiwan, recent archaeological, linguistic and genetic evidence has linked Austronesian speakers in Insular Southeast Asia to cultures such as the HemuduLiangzhu and Dapenkeng in Neolithic China.

    The site itself is part of a huge karst system with layers of shells and other minerals made by early humans. More excavation led to discovery of ancient artifacts like flake tools, polished stones, earthenware shards, bone tools and some animal remains. These remains and artifacts were dated by C to be around 8, to 5, years ago, making the site one of the most significant archaeological sites in the region. Historian William Henry Scott has observed that, based on lexicostatistical analysis involving seven million word pairs linguist Isidore Dyen offered intwo alternative scenarios explaining the origin and spread of Austronesian languages: During those millennia, other Austronesian speakers entered the Philippines in large enough numbers to leave a linguistic mark but not to replace established languages.

    Scott suggested that if this scenario is correct all present Philippine languages except for Sama—Bajaw languageswhich probably have more speakers outside the Philippines than within were produced within the archipelago, none of them being introduced by separate migration, and all of them having more in common with each other than with languages outside of the Philippines.

    During this neolithic period, a " jade culture" is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found at a site in Batangas province. The new tools brought about a more stable way of life, and created more opportunities for communities to grow, both in terms of size and cultural development. The resulting ease of contact between communities meant that they began to share similar cultural traits, something which had not previously been possible when the communities consisted only of small kinship groups.

    Jocano refers to the period between BC and 1 AD as the incipient phase, which for the first time in the artifact record, sees the presence of artifacts that are similar in design from site to site throughout the archipelago.

    Along with the use of metal tools, this era also saw significant improvement in pottery technology. In about the BC, there arose a practice of using gold eye covers, and then, gold facial orifice covers to adorn the dead resulting in an increase of ancient gold finds. During the Qin dynasty and the Tang dynastyChina was well aware of the golden lands far to the south.

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