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    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Neolithic reconstructions. A reconstruction of a pit-house type dwelling made with mammoth bones Neolithic, also known as the New Stone Age, was a time period roughly from BC to BC named because it was the last period of the age before wood working began.

    The tools available were made from natural materials including boneantler, hide, stonewood, grasses, animal fibers, and the use of water. These tools were used by people to cut such as with the hand axechopperadzeand celt. Also to scrapechop such as with a flake toolpound, pierce, roll, pull, leaver, and carry. Building materials included bones such as mammoth ribs, hidestone, metal, bark, bamboo, clay, lime plasterand more. For example, the first bridges made by humans were probably just wooden logs placed across a stream and later timber trackways.

    In addition to living in caves and rock sheltersthe first buildings were simple shelters, tents like the Inuit's tupiqand huts sometimes built as pit-houses meant to suit the basic needs of protection from the elements and sometimes as fortifications for safety such as the crannog.

    Built self-sufficiently by their inhabitants rather than by specialist builders, using locally available materials and traditional designs and methods which together are called vernacular architecture. The very simplest shelters, tents, leave no traces.

    Because of this, what little we can say about very early construction is mostly conjecture and based on what we know about the way nomadic hunter-gatherers and herdsmen in remote areas build shelters today. The absence of metal tools placed limitations on the materials that could be worked, but it was still possible to build quite elaborate stone structures with ingenuity using dry stone walling techniques such as at Skara Brae in Scotland, Europe's most complete Neolithic village.

    The first mud bricksformed with the hands rather than wooden moulds, belong to the late Neolithic period and were found in Jericho. One of the largest structures of this period was the Neolithic long house.

    In all cases of timber framed and log structures in these very early cultures, only the very lowest parts of the walls and post holes are unearthed in archaeological excavations, making reconstruction of the upper parts of these buildings largely conjectural. A reconstruction of a neolithic fortified village showing a palisade wall and stilt houses at the Pfahlbau Museum UnteruhldingenGermany.

    Neolithic architecture ranges from the tent to the megalith an arrangement of large stones and rock-cut architecture which are frequently temples, tombs, and dwellings. The most remarkable Neolithic structure in Western Europe is the iconic megalith known as Stonehengeregarded by some archaeologists as displaying methods of timber construction such as at woodhenge translated into stone, [2] a process known as petrification.

    The now ruinous remains are of post and lintel construction and include massive sandstone lintels which were located on supporting uprights by means of mortise and tenon joints; the lintels themselves being end-jointed by the use of tongue and groove joints. Gallery of Neolithic tools[ edit ] Man using a hand axe A Neolithic stone axe with a wooden handle.

    A sickle for harvesting crops and thatching materials. Bronze is made when tin is added to copper and brass is copper with zinc.

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    Copper came into use before 5, BC and bronze around 3, BC, although the times vary by region. Copper and bronze were used for the same types of tools as stone such as axes and chisels, but the new, less brittle, more durable material cut better. Bronze was cast into desired shapes and if damaged could be recast. A new tool developed in the copper age is the saw.

    Other uses of copper and bronze were to "harden" the cutting edge of tools such as the Egyptians using copper and bronze points for working soft stone including quarrying blocks and making rock-cut architecture. During the Bronze Age the corbelled arch came into use such as for beehive tombs.

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    The wheel came into use but was not common until much later. Heavy loads were moved on boats, sledges a primitive sled or on rollers. The Egyptians began building stone temples with the post and lintel construction method and the Greeks and Romans followed this style. Iron Age construction[ edit ] You can help by adding to it.

    Iron is not much harder than bronze but by adding carbon iron becomes steel which was being produced after about BC. Steel can be hardened and tempered producing a sharp, durable cutting edge. A new woodworking tool allowed by the use of steel is the hand-plane.

    Ancient Mesopotamia[ edit ] The earliest large-scale buildings for which evidence survives have been found in ancient Mesopotamia. The smaller dwellings only survive in traces of foundations, but the later civilizations built very sizeable structures in the forms of palaces, temples and ziggurats and took particular care to build them out of materials that last, which has ensured that very considerable parts have remained intact.

    Major technical achievement is evidenced by the construction of great cities such as Uruk and Ur. The Ziggurat of Ur is an outstanding building of the period, despite major reconstruction work.

    Another fine example is the ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil in modern Iran. Cities created demands for new technologies such as drains for animal and human sewage and paved streets. Archaeological evidence has shown the existence of pitched-brick vault [5] s such as at Tell al-Rimah in what is now Iraq.

    Materials[ edit ] The chief building material was the mud-brickformed in wooden moulds similar to those used to make adobe bricks. Bricks varied widely in size and format from small bricks that could be lifted in one hand to ones as big as large paving slabs.

    Rectangular and square bricks were both common. They were laid in virtually every bonding pattern imaginable and used with considerable sophistication. Drawings survive on clay tablets from later periods showing that buildings were set out on brick modules. Life in general was governed by complex ritual and this extended to rituals for setting-out buildings and moulding the first bricks. Contrary to popular belief the arch was not invented by the Romans, but was used in these civilizations.

    Detail of the Ishtar Gate BC showing the exceptionally fine glazed brickwork of the later period. Glazed bricks have been found from the 13th century B. The pitched-brick vault is a type found in Mesopotamia circa BC. Babylon ,the archaeological site inbefore major reconstruction work undertaken by Sadam Hussein Dried bricks stacked ready for firing without the use of a kiln. Egyptian stonework showing tool marks and butterfly interlocks in the Temple of Kom Ombo begun BC Ancient Egypt[ edit ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient architecture.

    Aerial view of the Ramasseum in Thebes with its associated adobe structures A copy of a wall painting in the tomb of Rekhmire between and BC.

    As opposed to the cultures of ancient Mesopotamia which built in brick, the pharaohs of Egypt built huge structures in stone. The arid climate has preserved much of the ancient buildings. Materials[ edit ] Adobe sun-baked mud brick construction was used for ancillary buildings and normal houses in ancient times and is still commonly used in rural Egypt.

    The hot, dry climate was ideal for mud-brick, which tends to wash away in the rain. The Ramesseum in Thebes, Egypt Luxor provides one of the finest examples of mud brick construction. Extensive storehouses with mud-brick vaults also survive, all constructed with sloping courses to avoid the need for formwork. The grandest buildings were constructed in stone, often from massive masonry blocks. The techniques used to move massive blocks used in pyramids and temples have been subject to extensive debate.

    Some authors have suggested that the larger may not be cut stone but fabricated with concrete. Ancient Egyptian technology Although the Egyptians achieved extraordinary feats of engineering, they appear to have done so with relatively primitive technology. As far as is known they did not use wheels or pulleys. They transported massive stones over great distances using rollers, ropes and sledges hauled by large numbers of workers. The ancient Egyptians are credited with inventing the rampleverlatheovenshippaperirrigation system, window awningdoorglassa form of plaster of Paris, the bath, lock, shadoofweavinga standardized measurement system, geometry, silo, a method of drilling stone, saw, steam power, proportional scale drawings, enameling, veneer, plywood, rope trussand more.

    There are no surviving Egyptian manuals so there has been considerable speculation on how stones were lifted to great heights and obelisks erected. Most theories centre on the use of ramps. Imhotepwho lived circa — BC, is credited with being the first recorded architect and engineer. Achievements[ edit ] The pyramids are chiefly impressive for their enormous size and the staggering manpower that must have been employed in their construction.

    The largest is the Great Pyramid of Giza which remained the tallest structure in the world for years see List of tallest freestanding structures in the world.

    The engineering problems involved were chiefly to do with the transport of blocks, sometimes over long distances, their movement into location and exact alignment. It is now generally agreed that the skilled building workers were respected and well treated, but undoubtedly very large numbers of labourers were necessary to provide the brute force. The methods used in the construction of the pyramids have been the subject of considerable research and discussion see: Egyptian pyramid construction techniques.

    Great Pyramid of Gizathe tallest building in the world for over years Ancient Greece[ edit ] An illustration showing masonry techniques of ancient Greece and Rome. Architecture of ancient GreeceList of ancient architectural recordsand List of ancient Greek and Roman roofs The ancient Greekslike the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians, tended to build most of their common buildings out of mud brick, leaving no record behind them.

    However very many structures do survive, some of which are in a very good state of repair, although some have been partly reconstructed or re-erected in the modern era. The most dramatic are the Greek Temples. The Greeks made many advances in technology including plumbing, the spiral staircase, central heating, urban planning, the water wheel, the crane, and more. The oldest "construction drawing" is in the Temple of Apollo at Didyma.

    An unfinished stone wall was etched with the profiles of columns and moldings, and the wall was never finished so the drawing was not erased: The spans are, in the main, limited and suggest very simple beam and post structures spanning stone walls. For the longer spans it is uncertain if the Greeks or Romans invented the truss but the Romans certainly used timber roof trusses.

    Fired clay was mainly restricted to roofing tiles and associated decorations, but these were quite elaborate. The roof tiles allow a low roof pitch characteristic of ancient Greek architecture. Fired bricks began to be employed with lime mortar. Very prominent buildings were roofed in stone tiles, which mimicked the form of their terracotta counterparts.

    While later cultures tended to construct their stone buildings with thin skins of finished stones over rubble cores, the Greeks tended to build out of large cut blocks, joined with metal cramps.

    This was a slow, expensive and laborious process which limited the number of buildings that could be constructed.

    Bermuda's Dockyard at Ireland Island, a Royal Navy base from to the s

    The metal cramps often failed through corrosion. Building structures mostly used a simple beam and column system without vaults or arches, which based strict limits on the spans that could achieved. However, the Greeks did construct some groin vaultsarch bridges and, with the Egyptians, the first "high rise", the Lighthouse of Alexandriaone of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

    Greek mathematics was technically advanced and we know for certain that they employed and understood the principles of pulleyswhich would have enabled them to build jibs and cranes to lift heavy stonework to the upper parts of buildings. Their surveying skills were exceptional, enabling them to set out the incredibly exact optical corrections of buildings like the Parthenonalthough the methods used remain a mystery.

    Simpler decoration, such as fluting on columns, was simply left until the drums of the columns were cut in place. The ancient Greeks never developed the strong mortars which became an important feature of Roman construction.
    To date I have 90 pieces of her work. I will always admire and love Joan for her work and for her caring for our environment, earth and all creatures here As summer residents of Lakewood, WI, we have frequented her studio numerous times over the last 20 years.

    She provided a second dimension to her studio by including rustic frames which truly enhanced her works of art. Her husband Ken has a talent for woodworking and the two works of wood go hand in hand to compliment each other. You have to "see it" to "believe it. I look at the sketch she has begun with and try to see the animals that she has found in the wood. She also captures a rich three-dimensional depth through the natural landscape surrounding her subjects, always fitting the environments within the flow of the woodgrain.

    Joan is much more than a talented artist. Joan is a gifted and perceptive human being who captures something extraordinary in the subjects she paints so well; she manages to see and reflect their soul and spirit in her work. I look into the eyes of her animals and I see individuals. From our largest piece which measures over 5' across to the beautiful framed prints with the one of a kind incredible frames created by Joan's husband Ken White. Joan's work can also now be seen in my office where one of my most treasured pieces resides.

    This piece spoke to me of my life and the loved ones that have gone before me. Thank you so much Joan for touching my life! Having the opportunity to buy Joan's gallery quality, original artwork at prices that are within reach of my middle-class income seems too good to be true.

    Her artistic talent brings nature to life, creating her vision from the wood's character. Whether the picture captures a moment in time or brings nature together with a spiritual reverence, her technique brings each subject to life.

    Every brushstroke adds a depth to the picture that I appreciate every time I linger to admire the details. I feel fortunate not only to own some of Joan's work but to have observed the creative process first hand.

    Intrigued by the intricate depictions, I began to research after buying a few prints. When finally I was able to feast my eyes on some of Joan's original art where slices of wood are turned into beautiful works of art, I was immediately impressed and have remained a collector forevermore.

    The pieces I have are eyemagnets for all visitors who stroll by, they are transcendent beacons for the spirit of nature. I was very intrigued with the painting of the animals and different faces mixed in with the grain of the wood.

    I thought it was very interesting how the gain and imperfections in the wood were used as part of the animal. I only bought 1 painting the first show but over the years I would be the first person at her booth on opening day.

    Over the years I have purchased 30 paintings, some large and some small. All the paintings have been enjoyed by myself and everyone that sees them. People are amazed by the way the grain is used to create the animals. Then I was very impressed from your Artwork when I purchased the first four 4 pieces of art from you. Today, over eighty 80 pieces of Artwork later, I appreciate your artwork even more. Many of these pieces of art of yours, are decorating walls in several countries in Europe in homes of friends and business partners offices as well as my own in the USA and Switzerland.

    They all get greatest admiration for the uniqueness of your work. My Family and I are in deep admiration of you and your outstanding and very unique work from Themes around the world. As you can imagine, I will not stop quite yet to get more of your artwork.

    Just keep it coming. Most of my friends enjoyed the pieces of your work I gave them as house warming, wedding and birthday gifts and enjoy them every day. When I look at one of your pieces hanging on my cabin wall I remember the day we came across the fawn curled up hiding in the tall grass. And I remember the day we saw the Tom turkey in full regalia strutting his stuff.

    Your pieces are memories, beautifully and magically painted on wood, brought into my home. I feel like we have found an artist that does justice to Mother Nature.

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